# Quantities in the Decimal System

QUANTITIES IN THE DECIMAL SYSTEM

Direct Aim:
…to develop the concept of the hierarchical orders of the decimal system: units, tens, hundreds, thousands.
…to give the child the relative measurement of the quantities: bead, bar, square, cube.

Indirect Aim:
…to prepare the child for geometry concepts: point, line, surface and solid.

Age: 3-6

Materials:
…the golden bead materials which consist of:
…one container of loose gold beads representing units
…one box of 10 gold bead squares of ten bars (representing 100)
…one box containing 1 gold bead cube of hundred- squares (representing 1,000)
…a large tray with a dish or smaller tray, used for transferring the quantities

Presentation:
Individual Presentation. As a unit bead, and then a ten bar is placed on the table, the child is asked to identify the quantities. One hundred and one thousand are presented also. The teacher gives a three period lesson naming the quantities: unit, ten, hundred, and thousand. The child is then invited to examine the materials and their composition. The child may count the ten beads on the ten-bar again. “The hundred is made up of ten ten bars”. The ten-bar is placed on top of the square as the child counts. “The thousand is made up of 10 hundreds”. The hundred-square is placed next to each section of the cube as the child counts. The teacher gives the three period lesson defining the composition of the quantities.

Exercise:
Small Group exercise. The golden bead materials, now including the wooden hundred-squares and thousand-cubes are arranged at random on a rug (in a basket). Each child takes a tray. The teacher asks the child to bring a quantity. ‘Bring me 3 hundreds’ As each child returns with the quantity, the child identifies it, and the teacher and child count it together. At first the child is asked to bring only one hierarchy at a time. Later he will bring all four at once.