**UNION OF QUANTITIES AND NUMERALS (SYMBOLS)**

**Materials**:

…golden bead materials

…numeral cards 1-9, 10-90, 100-900 and 1000

**Presentation**:

As the teacher lays out the unit beads, the child counts: ‘one unit, two units…nine units.’ The teacher goes on: ‘If we added one more unit, we’d have ten units. Ten units make one ten.’ The tens are counted as they are lain out: ‘one ten, two tens… nine tens.’ ‘If we add one more ten we’d have ten tens. Ten tens make one hundred.’ And so on up tone thousand. Here the rule of the decimal system is stated: Only nine quantities can remain loose. When we reach ten, we move to a superior hierarchical order.

**Exercises**:

1. The teacher places the numeral cards (as in the diagram) on one table and the quantities on another. The teacher places one quantity on a tray. The child finds the corresponding numeral card and places it on top of the quantity. The teacher controls.

2. The teacher places a numeral card on a tray. The child brings the corresponding quantity.

**Subsequent Presentation**:

Group Presentation: The teacher places cards of different orders on the tray. The child brings the corresponding quantities with the cards placed on top. The teacher controls and hands the cards back to the child. When the child has all of the numeral cards, he does the magic (arranges the cards) and reads the numeral. The exercise continues omitting one hierarchical order to show that the place is held by zeros.

**Age**: 3-6

**Direct Aim**:

…to understand the rule of the decimal system: only nine quantities can remain loose.

…to familiarize the child with the hierarchical orders

…to offer the opportunity to write complete numerals

**Indirect Aim**:

…to give the understanding that zero occupies the place of a missing order.

**Note**: With these and all other activities involving the golden bead material, the units should remain in the small tray. This confines the loose beads in a set and makes it easier for the child to see that he has nine, one more would make ten. When counting, the beads may be dumped into the palm and counted back into the tray.