**ADDITION**

Exercise*:*

As in the presentation. The teacher helps to set up the exercise and will act as a guide until the children can work together confidently.

Control*:*

The teacher. However the emphasis is on the process not on the exact result.

Age*:*

5 years

Note:

The process is the focus of the decimal system.

When working with the golden beads do not correct the answer.

Purpose*:*

To give the children the experience of the process of addition.

Addend + Addend = Sum

Materials*:
*A supply of golden bead material: 50 unit beads, 45 tens, 45 hundred and 9 thousands kept neatly on a tray.

One set of large number cards 1 to 9000.

Three sets of small number cards 1 to 3000.

Three trays and three castors to hold the units.

Presentation*:* A small group exercise.

This work can be done at a large table or at a mat on the floor.

Invite one child to lay out the large number cards, another sets out three sets of small number cards in the same formation as the large number cards.

Ask another child to take care of the tray of Golden Bead Material acting as a ‘banker’.

Give a tray to each of three children with a castor to hold the unit beads.

Static Addition (Without changing)

Place a low four digit number on each of the three trays using the small number cards – each tray should have a different number.

The children read the number on their tray.

Show them how to approach the ‘banker’ and to ask politely for that amount of golden bead.

The children return to the work area where the teacher removes the golden beads in hierarchical order from each tray placing them on the mat in three separate quantities (addends).

Place the small number cards in problem formation at the left corner of the mat (representing addends).

Add the units by bringing the three amounts together in the center of the mat.

Ask the child in charge of the large number cards to give you the numeral which represents the answer.

Place it below the units.

Proceed to work in the same way with the tens, hundreds and thousands.

Superimpose the large number cards and place them below the small number cards (sum).

Review the process and say, “Now we have done ‘addition’.”

______ brought me ______ ______ brought me ______ and ______ brought me ______ and when we added them together we found that we had _________________.

Point to each of the small number cards and say, “This is an addend, this is an addend and this is an addend.”

Point to the Large Number Cards and say, “This is the sum.”

The children will pick up the terminology quite naturally.

Dynamic Addition (With exchanging)

Follow the same procedure as for the static addition but now you select small number cards whose sum will require exchanging.

Individual Work

When the children have understood the process of addition they may work on their own taking a tray of golden bead to their table or taking what they need from a ‘pool’ of golden beads.

Later, they may progress from using the number cards to having the teacher write problems in their work book or taking a sheet of prepared problems and working with them.

However, this needs some preparation.

The children need to be shown how to write problems in their work books and how to space the problems and use a ruler to draw straight lines.

Neat work habits are fostered in this way.