1. The Difference Between Matter and Energy
strips of paper, black and red pens
black pyramid, red sphere
grammar symbols: noun, article, adjective, verb
insets of geometry cabinet: circle, triangle, polygons
Presentation: The teacher writes the labels for some objects consisting of noun, article and adjective written in black. A few children read the labels and bring the objects. Other labels are written in red; these are simple commands, i.e. run, walk. The children read these silently an execute the commands.
All of the labels are placed on the table: the environment labels with their objects and the verb commands alone. The objects are here, but where is run and walk? They have disapppeared. These are verbs. The verb is energy. Examples of energy in activity are given, recalling the generation of body heat through activity. Like a coal or wood fire is energy, it gives off heat and light. Energy is very important to life. Verbs show energy.
Presentation: Symbols The pyramid is presented, and the child recalls that it represents the noun. The symbol chosen for the verb is a red sphere. The noun is very stable; it cannot move. The verb moves quite a bit and freely. (Verb – from Latin verbum, word par excellence, the most important word). In the same way as the triangle represents the pyramid, a circle represents the sphere. The freedom of movement is shown with the metal insets. The greater the number of sides, the more freely it moves.
Aims: to give the symbol and etymology of the verb
Concept: The verb shows energy.
2. The Action Disappears
Materials: miniature environment objects
Presentation:The objects are on the table. The teacher asks the child to put the objects in the basket. Where are the objects? Where were they at first? You performed an action. Where is the action? The action has disappeared but something has happened to the objects; they have changed their positions. The verb has given life to the objects. The matter remains but the action is no longer seen.
Aim: to show that the verb gives life to objects[top]
3. Energy Needs Matter
Materials: strips of paper
The teacher writes two commands – one is transitive; the other is intransitive, i.e. walk and eat. It is observed that one child can perform while the other cannot, because he/she has no object. One action depended on having an object (to eat), while the other action depended solely on the child. Some verbs require an object while others require only someone to do it.
Aim: to indirectly prepare for transitive and intransitive verbs
4. The Verb is Movement
Materials: basket of one word commands
If we have a group of marionettes that are not moving, they are simply objects without life. When someone comes along and pulls their strings, he/she makes them dance, walk, wave their arms; he/she gives them movement. The verb is movement. The children stand limp like immobile marionettes. The teacher gives each one a verb command. As soon as the child receives the command, he/she begins to execute the action. The marionettes have come to life. One by one the teacher takes the command cards back from the children’s hands. Each in turn stops the action to become limp once again.
Aims: to understand that the verb signifies movement; to understand
the function of the verb and all of its characteristics.
5. Exercise of Logical Agreement Between Action and Object
Materials: 10 verbs on red cards
10 nouns on black cards
Presentation #1:The two stacks of cards are shuffled. The child reads the verbs as he/she places them in a column. he/she then takes the nouns one at a time and tries to match them, i.e. read a story or polish a shoe.
The child may write this list of pairs in his/her notebook, or he/she may take only one list and compose the other as he/she writes it in his/her book. To amuse the children, the nouns may be collected and redistributed randomly. This will clearly show that some objects don’t make sense with certain verbs.
Aim: to bring the child to a point of consciousness that energy must have its specific object in order to make sense.
Presentation #2: One Verb and Many Objects
The verb cards are arranged in a column. For each verb the child tries to match as many objects as he/she can. Some verbs take many objects, i.e. draw, throw; while others take few or only one, i.e.drink, light.
Aim: to understand that one verb may act on (apply to) many objects, but all of the objects must have a logical connection.